From Idea to Patent: Navigating Intellectual Property Rights in AI Innovation in India

author Ahlawat

calender May 20, 2024

From Idea to Patent: Navigating Intellectual Property Rights in AI Innovation in India

AI innovation isn't just a trendy term; it's revolutionizing industries worldwide, and India stands at the forefront of this technology revolution. From healthcare to finance, agriculture to manufacturing, AI is revolutionizing traditional practices, enhancing efficiency, and driving remarkable growth. However, Amid these innovations, there is a growing need to protect Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) to ensure that designers and inventors receive adequate recognition and protection. In this blog post, we dive deeper into things from a legal perspective, specifically focusing on how patents, copyrights, and trade secrets apply to AI innovations in India.

In this blog, we explore the intersection of AI innovation and intellectual property opportunities in the Indian market. We delve into the nuances of patentability criteria, copyright protection, and trade secret protection, shedding light on the legal options available for AI innovation. With these insights, we aim to clarify and guide those navigating the IPR challenges of AI innovation and highlight the importance of protecting and promoting innovation in India’s ever-evolving AI landscape.

Understanding Intellectual Property Rights in AI Innovation

In the field of Artificial Intelligence (AI), intellectual property (IP) refers to the legal protections given to the creations and inventions that come from AI technologies. This includes things like algorithms, datasets, software, and other AI-related innovations. IP in AI acts like a shield, giving creators exclusive rights to their work, so they can control how it's used and make money from it.

  • Types of IP Rights: Patents, Copyrights, and Trade Secrets
  • Patents: In AI, patents can cover innovative algorithms, methodologies, or applications that provide a unique solution to a technical problem. To be eligible for patent protection, AI inventions must meet certain criteria, including novelty, non-obviousness, and industrial applicability.
  • Copyrights: In AI, copyrights can apply to AI-generated content such as artwork, literature, music, and even software code. While AI itself cannot be considered a copyright holder, the individual or entity that creates or owns the AI-generated content may be eligible for copyright protection.
  • Trade Secrets: Trade secrets are confidential and proprietary information that provides a competitive advantage to its owner. In the context of AI, trade secrets may include proprietary algorithms, datasets, or other valuable information that gives a business a competitive edge. Unlike patents or copyrights, trade secrets do not require registration and can be protected indefinitely as long as they remain confidential.

How These Rights Apply to AI Innovations 

● Patents: AI innovations that qualify for patents can be protected, giving inventors exclusive rights to their inventions. This covers AI algorithms, methods, or applications that offer new and inventive solutions to technical problems.

  Copyrights: AI-generated content, like artwork, literature, music, or software, can be protected by copyright. The person or entity that creates or owns the AI-generated content can claim copyright ownership and control how their works are reproduced, distributed, and displayed. 

      Trade Secrets: AI algorithms, datasets, or other valuable information that give a competitive advantage can be protected as trade secrets. By keeping these trade secrets confidential, businesses can stop unauthorized use or disclosure and keep their competitive edge in the market.

Understanding and leveraging intellectual property rights are essential for AI innovators to protect and commercialize their inventions effectively. By utilizing patents, copyrights, and trade secrets strategically, AI creators can safeguard their innovations, foster innovation, and maintain a competitive edge in the rapidly evolving landscape of AI technology.

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Patents in AI Innovation: A Legal Perspective

Criteria for Patentability in India

In India, the Indian Patents Act outlines the requirements for an invention to qualify for patent protection. These requirements include novelty, an inventive step, and industrial applicability. For AI innovations, meeting these criteria can be particularly difficult due to the complex and fast-changing nature of AI technologies.

1. Novelty: An AI invention must be new and not previously disclosed to the public anywhere in the world before the patent application is filed. Given the extensive global AI research and development, proving novelty can be a tough task for AI innovators.

2. Inventive Step: Also known as non-obviousness, this requires that the AI invention involves a creative leap beyond what is already known or obvious to someone skilled in the field. This is challenging in AI, where small, incremental improvements are common, making it hard to prove a significant inventive step.

3. Industrial Applicability: The invention must be capable of being made or used in an industry. Although many AI innovations apply to industry, demonstrating this can still be challenging for certain AI inventions, especially those in new or niche areas. 

Challenges and Opportunities in Obtaining Patents for AI Innovations


      Patent Eligibility: Determining what can be patented in AI, especially concerning software and algorithms, is complex.

      Patent Examination: AI-related patent applications might face delays or rejections due to patent examiners' lack of technical expertise in AI.

      Prior Art: A large amount of existing work in AI makes it hard to prove novelty and an inventive step, requiring careful drafting and strategies.

Despite these challenges, there are also opportunities for inventors and businesses in the AI field to secure valuable patent protections. 


      First-Mover Advantage: Securing patents for AI innovations can provide a first-mover advantage, allowing inventors to establish a dominant position in the market and attract investment and licensing opportunities.

      Portfolio Development: Building a robust patent portfolio can enhance the competitiveness and value of AI businesses, enabling them to leverage their intellectual property assets for strategic partnerships and collaborations.

      Licensing and Commercialization: Patents offer opportunities for monetization through licensing agreements, enabling inventors to generate revenue from their AI inventions while retaining ownership of their intellectual property. 

Copyrights and AI: Protecting Creative Works 

Scope of Copyright Protection for AI-Generated Content 

In the world of Artificial Intelligence (AI), copyright protection covers original works created by AI algorithms, including literary, artistic, and musical pieces. While AI itself cannot hold copyright, the person or entity that creates or owns the AI-generated content can be eligible for copyright protection. This applies to AI-generated artworks, literature, music, and even software code. The main requirement for copyright protection is the originality and creative expression shown in the AI-generated work, whether it was made by humans or AI.

Ownership of Copyright in AI-Generated Works 

Determining who owns the copyright in AI-generated works can be complicated and often depends on how the work was created. If a human uses AI as a tool and has creative control over the output, the human typically owns the copyright. However, if the AI system creates the work on its own without human intervention, questions about who owns the copyright can arise. In such cases, the owner or operator of the AI system, who has made significant creative contributions or controlled the AI's output, might be considered the copyright owner. Clear contracts and documentation detailing the rights and responsibilities of everyone involved in creating and using AI-generated works are crucial to establishing copyright ownership and avoiding disputes. 

Legal Challenges in Copyrighting AI-Generated Content 

Despite the growing presence of AI-generated content, several legal challenges exist in copyrighting such works:

1. Authorship and Originality: Questions about who the author is and the originality of AI-generated works often arise, especially when AI autonomously creates content without human input. Deciding if AI-generated content is original enough for copyright protection can be controversial and may vary based on different legal interpretations and precedents.

2. Attribution and Accountability: Determining proper recognition and protection for creators' rights in AI-generated works is challenging. Without clear ways to identify the contributions of both human creators and AI systems, establishing who owns the copyright and who is liable for infringement can be problematic.

3. Fair Use and Derivative Works: Applying copyright exceptions like fair use and creating derivative works from AI-generated content raises complex legal questions. Determining what uses of AI-generated works are allowed for research, education, or transformative purposes requires careful interpretation of copyright laws and principles of fair dealing.

4. International Harmonization: The global spread of AI innovation and AI-generated content calls for consistent international copyright laws and standards. Differences in copyright laws across countries make it difficult for creators and users of AI-generated works to navigate legal systems and ensure they comply with copyright requirements.

Trade Secrets: Safeguarding AI Algorithms

Importance of Trade Secrets in Protecting AI Innovations

In the rapidly evolving field of Artificial Intelligence (AI), trade secrets are vital for protecting proprietary algorithms, datasets, and other valuable information that give businesses a competitive edge. Unlike copyrights, which require public disclosure for protection, trade secrets depend on confidentiality to retain their value and exclusivity. For AI innovators, protecting sensitive AI algorithms as trade secrets offers several key advantages:

1. Durability: Trade secrets can be protected indefinitely as long as they remain confidential. This provides AI innovators with a lasting competitive advantage, preventing rivals from reverse engineering or replicating their algorithms.

2. Flexibility: Unlike patents, which have strict criteria and disclosure requirements, trade secrets offer more flexibility. They can protect a wide range of AI innovations, including algorithms, datasets, and proprietary methods.

3. Cost-Effectiveness: Securing and maintaining trade secret protection is often cheaper than obtaining patents. Patents involve significant costs for filing, prosecution, and maintenance, while trade secrets avoid these expenses.

4. Competitive Edge: Keeping AI algorithms confidential allows innovators to maintain a competitive edge in the market. This prevents competitors from accessing or copying their proprietary technology.

Strategies for Safeguarding AI Algorithms as Trade Secrets

Effectively safeguarding AI algorithms as trade secrets requires implementing robust strategies and best practices to minimize the risk of unauthorized disclosure or misappropriation. Some key strategies include: 

1. Restricted Access: Limit access to AI algorithms and sensitive data to only authorized personnel with a legitimate need-to-know, utilizing encryption, access controls, and other technical safeguards to prevent unauthorized access.

2. Non-Disclosure Agreements (NDAs): Require employees, contractors, and partners to sign comprehensive NDAs that prohibit the disclosure or unauthorized use of confidential information, including AI algorithms and trade secrets. 

3. Employee Training and Awareness: Provide regular training and awareness programs to educate employees about the importance of confidentiality and the proper handling of sensitive AI-related information. 

4. Physical and Cybersecurity Measures: Implement physical security measures, such as secure data storage facilities and access controls, as well as cybersecurity measures, such as firewalls, encryption, and intrusion detection systems, to protect against external threats and cyberattacks.

5. Monitoring and Auditing: Regularly monitor and audit access to AI algorithms and sensitive data, detecting and addressing any unauthorized access or suspicious activities promptly.

Legal Implications of Trade Secret Misappropriation in India

In India, trade secret misappropriation is addressed through contract law, tort law, and laws against unfair competition, as there is no specific legislation for trade secrets. However, courts recognize trade secret protection under common law and equitable principles, providing remedies for misappropriation based on breach of confidence, unjust enrichment, and misuse of confidential information. 

The legal consequences of trade secret misappropriation in India include:

      Civil Remedies: These can involve injunctive relief (court orders to stop the misuse), damages (financial compensation), and accounts of profits (handing over profits made from the misappropriation).

      Criminal Penalties: In certain cases, misappropriation can lead to criminal charges.

To prove trade secret misappropriation, the plaintiff must show that: 

1. The information qualifies as a trade secret.

2. Reasonable steps were taken to keep it confidential.

3. The defendant acquired, used, or disclosed the trade secret without authorization.

Effective enforcement of trade secret rights in India involves:

      Proactive Legal Action: Promptly initiating legal proceedings when misappropriation is suspected.

      Evidence Collection: Gathering proof to support the claim of misappropriation.

      Law Enforcement Collaboration: Working with authorities to investigate and prosecute theft. 

By understanding the legal framework and implementing strong protection strategies, AI innovators can better safeguard their valuable intellectual property and mitigate the risk of trade secret misappropriation in the rapidly advancing field of AI.

The Role of Government and Regulatory Bodies 

Initiatives and Policies Supporting AI Innovation and IPR Protection in India 

1. National AI Strategy: The Indian government's "AI for All" strategy promotes AI research, development, and adoption in sectors like healthcare, agriculture, education, and smart cities. This initiative aims to make India a global AI leader and emphasizes the need for a strong intellectual property (IP) framework to support AI innovations.

2. Startup India and Digital India Programs: Startup India provides financial support, mentorship, and a business-friendly environment for startups, including those in AI. Digital India aims to enhance digital infrastructure and services, creating opportunities for AI innovations.

3. IPR Policy and Reforms: The National Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) Policy, launched in 2016, seeks to build a robust IP system in India. It includes measures to raise IP awareness, improve IP administration, and strengthen enforcement, supporting the protection and commercialization of AI-related inventions.

4. Collaborative Research and Innovation Hubs: The government collaborates with academic institutions and industry partners to establish research and innovation hubs. These hubs focus on advancing AI research, facilitating technology transfer, and supporting the commercialization of AI innovations.

Role of the Indian Patent Office and Other Regulatory Bodies

1. Indian Patent Office (IPO): The IPO manages the patent system in India, examining patent applications, granting patents, and ensuring compliance with patent laws. For AI innovations, the IPO assesses novelty, inventive step, and industrial applicability. It also provides guidelines on patenting software and AI-related inventions, crucial for AI innovators.

2. Department for Promotion of Industry and Internal Trade (DPIIT): DPIIT oversees the implementation of the National IPR Policy, creating an environment conducive to innovation and IP protection. It coordinates with the IPO and other stakeholders to streamline IP processes and improve IP infrastructure.

3. Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MeitY): MeitY promotes electronic and IT infrastructure development and plays a key role in advancing AI technology. It manages initiatives like the National AI Portal, a repository for AI resources and information, and collaborates with other government bodies to develop policies supporting AI innovation and addressing ethical and regulatory challenges.

4. Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) and NASSCOM: These industry associations work with the government to advocate for AI innovation and IP protection policies. They provide platforms for industry collaboration, share knowledge, and influence policy decisions. CII and NASSCOM also organize events, workshops, and training programs to promote IP awareness and best practices among AI innovators.

5. Judicial System: The judiciary interprets IP laws and adjudicates IP disputes. Specialized IP courts and tribunals handle IP cases efficiently. Judicial decisions and precedents shape the legal landscape for AI innovations, providing clarity on complex IP protection issues.

Through these initiatives and the active roles of various regulatory bodies, the Indian government aims to create a supportive ecosystem for AI innovation and robust IP protection. This comprehensive approach ensures AI innovators have the legal and institutional support needed to protect their creations, fostering a culture of innovation and growth in India's AI landscape.

Future Trends in the AI IPR Landscape in India

1. Evolving Legal Frameworks: To address the unique challenges posed by AI, India is likely to see the evolution of its legal frameworks governing IP. This may include amendments to existing laws to accommodate better AI-related inventions and more detailed guidelines from regulatory bodies like the Indian Patent Office on the patentability of AI technologies.

2. Increased Collaboration Between Stakeholders: The future of AI IPR in India will likely involve greater collaboration between government agencies, industry associations, academic institutions, and international organizations. Such collaborations can foster a more cohesive approach to IP protection, policy formulation, and enforcement, ensuring that AI innovators receive comprehensive support.

3. Enhanced IP Awareness and Education: There will be a continued emphasis on increasing awareness and education about IP rights among AI innovators. This includes training programs, workshops, and resources to help inventors understand the intricacies of IP protection and how to navigate the legal landscape effectively.

4. AI in IP Administration: Integrating AI technologies into the IP administration process is a foreseeable trend. AI can assist in patent searches, examination processes, and identifying prior art more efficiently, leading to quicker and more accurate IP granting procedures. This can help streamline the patent application process and reduce backlogs.

5. Data-Driven IP Strategies: As data becomes increasingly central to AI development, future IP strategies will likely focus more on protecting data assets. Innovators may adopt more sophisticated data protection measures, including advanced encryption and secure data-sharing protocols, to safeguard their competitive edge.

6. Development of AI-Specific IP Policies: India may develop and implement AI-specific IP policies that address the unique aspects of AI innovations. This could involve establishing new categories of IP rights tailored to AI technologies, providing clearer definitions, and creating frameworks that balance the interests of innovators, users, and the public.


As we have explored, protecting AI innovations through intellectual property rights (IPR) is crucial for fostering growth and ensuring that creators are rewarded for their ingenuity. However, the legal landscape surrounding AI and IPR is complex and constantly evolving. To effectively navigate these complexities, it is essential to stay informed and seek expert legal guidance.

Whether you are an AI developer, a business owner, or someone interested in the tech industry, understanding the nuances of intellectual property laws can significantly impact the safeguarding of your innovations. Legal professionals specializing in IPR can provide invaluable assistance in securing patents, protecting copyrights, and managing trade secrets effectively.

At Ahlawat & Associates, we pride ourselves on being one of India's top IP law firms. Our team of experienced legal experts is dedicated to helping you protect your innovations and navigate the legal challenges specific to AI technology. We offer comprehensive services, from patent filing and copyright registration to trade secret management and litigation support.

Don’t let your groundbreaking ideas fall into the wrong hands or get lost in the legal maze. Reach out to Ahlawat & Associates to ensure your intellectual property is well-protected, and your innovations can thrive in today’s competitive landscape. Stay informed, stay protected, and let us guide you through the ever-evolving world of intellectual property rights in AI.

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